Events:

1-30 April Miyako Odori(Cherry Dance), Kyoto
Maiko and geiko dance performances
Advance tickets are available from overseas at:
The performances are being done at Kyoto Art Theater “Shunjuza”(http://k-pac.org/) this year.

25-28 May Azuma Odori, Tokyo
http://www.azuma-odori.jp/ (sorry, Japanese version only)
Geisha dance performances
Tickets will be available after April 14



seasonal flowers:


cherry blossom forecast :
http://sakura.weathermap.jp/ (Japanese version only)  


Friday, March 31, 2017

Damage of 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami

Six years have passed since the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. This year was the sixth anniversary of the victims' deaths called 7kaiki(七回忌,7th ki.) In Japanese Buddhism, the year a person died is counted as the beginning of ki(忌.)  However, the first anniversary of a person's death is called 1syuuki(一周忌, 1st ki.) Relatives commonly attend the memorial service until the 3kaiki. Generally, a memorial service is held on the 1st(1syuuki), 2nd(3kaiki), 6th(7kaiki), 12th(13kaiki) anniversary of the death. Although there are also the memorial services of 17kaiki, 23kaiki, 27kaiki, 33kaiki, 37kaiki, 43kaiki, 47kaiki and 50kaiki, they are rarely held.

Here are subset of the damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami.

・A tsunami is a series of waves, and the first wave may not be the most dangerous.
・Even a small tsunami can cause damage to moored vessels and aquaculture facilities.
・Strong shaking and long-period ground motion from the quake wreaked widespread havoc.


Tsunami-inundated area is outlined in red. For comparison, the map of Great Britain and Ireland is showed. Britain is also an island country and is not too different in size to Japan. Just for your information, the total tsunami-inundated area(561km²) is nearly equal to the areas of Aberdeen(185.7 km²), Edinburgh(264 km²) and Liverpool(111.8 km².)

The spilling wave of the tsunami is terrible, but its backrush is more terrible. The backrush washed people and coastal structures into the sea with speed greater than the speed of the spilling wave. The backrush plummeted into the sea from the top of the quay wall as if a waterfall fell into the basin of water from its top. Some victims floating or on the roofs were driven to the basin.

Most foreign media only pick up on tsunami and Fukushima's nuclear power station. However, the quake caused strong shaking and serious damage to us.

Damage caused by Great East Japan Earthquake as of 1 March 2017
(Fire and Disaster Management Agency released)

PrefecturesCasualties  Residence BuildingsNon-residential
Buildings
Fire
DeadMissingInjuredCompletely
destroyed
Half
destroyed
Partially
destroyed
Inundation
 above
floor level 
Inundation
 below
floor level  
Public
buildings
Others
Hokkaido1-3-47329545174524
Aomori311103087011,005---1,402 11
Yamagata3-45-141,249--81242
Akita--11--5----1
Iwate5,1341,12221119,5076,57018,963- 65294,17833
Miyagi10,5561,2344,14883,000155,129224,202-7,7969,94816,848137
Fukushima3,73022518215,21880,628141,1541,061 351 1,01036,77038
Ibaraki651714 2,62924,374187,6821,799  7791,79820,80431
Tochigi4-133 2612,11873,792-- 7189,703-
Gunma 1 -40-17,679----2
Saitama1-1042419916,570 -- 95-12
Chiba22226180110,15255,043157731 1282718
Tokyo-119202236,552--41978635
Kanagawa5-137-41459---136
Niigata--3--17--45-
Yamanashi--2--4--11-
Nagano--1--------
Shizuoka--3--13-5---
Mie--1---2----
Osaka--1-----3**--
Tokushima------29---
Kochi--1--28---
Total19,5332,5856,230121,768280,160744,3963,35210,23014,56291,913330

*The fatalities number includes disaster-related death
**A skyscraper building in Osaka was slightly damaged by long-period ground motion.  The motion caused damage to  floating roofs of oil storage tanks by liquid sloshing in Yamagata, Niigata, Kanagawa and Chiba Prefectures.

Cause of death in Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima prefectures
(National Police Agency, Cabinet Office)


CausesPercentage Of Deaths
Drowning92.4%
Shaking(collapse, etc.)4.4%
Fire1.1%
Unspecified2%


Current situations of evacuees as of 13 February 2017
(Reconstruction Agency)
Houses of relatives,
acquaintances  etc. 
Residence (including public housing、
temporary housing、
privately rented housing、
hospitals
Evacuee
numbers
18,177 104,991


Temporary housing residents as of January 2017
by Yahoo Japan(https://fukko.yahoo.co.jp/graph/)
PrefecturesNumber of Temporary housing Residents
Iwate10,503
Miyagi12,619
Fukushima12,381

Even in Japan, a house is probably the largest purchase one makes in his lifetime.
Most people build a house with a loan.

Single-family houses built in Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima prefectures after the  Great East Japan Earthquake
by Yahoo Japan(https://fukko.yahoo.co.jp/graph/)

using public systemby oneself
number of
houses
19,07431,769

Tsunami-inundated areas(km²)
 (Geospatial Information Authority of Japan)
PrefecturesTotal Land use Type
Rice paddiesUrban areasSeashore
Aomori 24 0.72 2.4 7.9
Iwate 58 9.86 19.72 1.74
Miyagi 327 134.07 68.67 6.54
Fukushima 112 59.36 13.44 3.36
Ibaraki 23 1.38 3.45 6.67
Chiba 17 3.57 2.55 3.91
total 561 207.57 112.2 33.66

Damage of medical and welfare institutions in Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima prefectures
(Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare)

hospitalsmedical clinicsdental clinics
prefecturesCompletely
destroyed
Partially
destroyed
Completely
destroyed
Partially
destroyed
Completely
destroyed
Completely
destroyed
Iwate35938764679
Miyagi51234358132367
Fukushima210825165374
total10290831,17383820


child welfare facilitieselder care
facilities
facilities
for the disabled
prefecturesCompletely
destroyed
Partially
destroyed
Completely
destroyed
Partially
destroyed
Completely
destroyed
Completely
destroyed
Iwate1229992956
Miyagi1313125411122
Fukushima2921168070
total272521231420248


Infrastructure damage caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake as of 1 March 2016
(National Police Agency)

PrefecturesDamaged points  Landslides  Dike breaks
RoadsBridgesRailroads
Aomori2----
Yamagata21--29-
Akita9----
Iwate304-6-
Miyagi39012265145
Fukushima1873-9-
Ibaraki30741---
Tochigi257-240-
Gunma36--9-
Saitama160----
Chiba2,343-155-
Tokyo29555-6-
Kanagawa1601-2-
Gifu1----
Total4,1981162920745



Even a small tsunami caused damage to aquaculture: Rafts or fishing float balls were swept away. Fouled ropes became unusable. Fish escaped from broken live boxes.

Damage of Fisheries
(Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan)

PrefecturesFishing vesselsFishing portsJoint
Use
Facilities**
Fishery Processing FacilitiesAquacultureTsunami Height
(Obsevation
 Point)
 Completely
 destroyed
 Half
 destroyed
 InundationFarmed
species
Facility damage
(millions of yen)
Product damage
(millions of yen)
Hokkaido7931283-427Scallop,
Oyster,
Sea urchin,
Konbu(kelp),
 Wakame(Sea mustard)
etc.
9,3565,771430cm
(Toyokoro-cho)
Aomori620187341439Konbu,
Scallop
4319840cm
(Hachinohe
Port)
Iwate13,27110858012816-Scallop,
Oyster,
Konbu,
Wakame
etc.
13,08713,1741670cm
(Ofunato)
Miyagi12,0291424953231738Silver salmon,
Scallop,
Oyster,
Sea squirts、
Konbu,
Wakame,
Nori(algae)
etc.
48,70033,1891480cm
(Onagawa
Port)
Fukushima87310233771612Nori etc.2975361650cm
(Futaba-cho)
Ibaraki48816172323312Carp,
Pearl etc.
27***-690cm
(Kitaibaraki
City)
Tochigi--2***-------
Chiba405137861312Nori etc.428737640cm
(Asahi
City)
Tokyo3-------- 150cm
(Harumi)
Kanagawa------Wakame etc.3332155cm
(Yokohama)
Niigata5-----Nishikigoi
(Japanese
 colored
carp)
4***-18cm
(Niigata
 West Port)
Toyama8*--------9cm
(Shinminato)
Ishikawa1*--------19cm
(Kanazawa)
Shizuoka14--------144cm
(Omaezaki)
Aichi8-----Nori etc.--155cm
(Akabane,
Tahara City)
Mie26-4---Red
seabream,
Pacific
bluefin tuna,
Oyster,
Nori,
Pearl etc.
1,2742,355182cm
(Toba)
Hyogo--3------27cm
(Kobe)
Wakayama6-----Red
seabream,
Pacific
bluefin tuna
etc.
141834151cm
(Fukuro
Port,
Kushimoto-cho)
Tottori2*--------26 cm
(Sakai,
Sakaiminato)
Tokushima10-----Greater
amberjack,
Japanese
amberjack,
White trevally,
Wakame etc.
65508115cm
(Yuki,
Minami-cho)
Kochi25-2---Greater
amberjack,
Red
seabream,
Nori etc.
2282,377278cm
(Susaki)
Oita2-----Red
seabream,
Japanese
amberjack,
White
trevally,
Olive
flounder
8517555cm
( Beppu
Port)
Miyazaki20-----Japanese
amberjack, Atlantic
horse
mackerel,
Japanese
meagre etc.
0.286164cm
(Miyazaki
Port)
Kagoshima3--------106cm
(Shibushi
Port)
Okinawa------Mozuku
(Cladosiphon
okamuranus),
Cobia
63260cm
(Naha)
Total28,6123191,725570113140
73,77659,745

*vessels damaged during mooring in affected ports
**fish markets、vanning/devanning facilities、oil depots、collaborative workspaces, fry facilities, ice-making and fridge-freezer facilities, aquaculture facilities etc.
***damages include aquaculture ponds damaged by shaking


Damage of Agriculture
(Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan)
PrefecturesDamaged points  Crop and
Livestock damage (millions of yen) 
Agriculture-related facilities *4,
animal Husbandry facilities
*5
(millions of yen)
FarmlandAgricultural facilities*1Seashore protective facilities *2Rural community facilities*3
Aomori202212258582
Yamagata102134027058
Akita0701111
Iwate13,3213,65715411,9832,865
Miyagi1,4954,7241031078,21435,121
Fukushima1,7993,749201418051,305
Ibaraki1871,8050969844,348
Tochigi2384050231,0173,506
Gunma03200-5
Saitama06700--
Chiba1132,2250166321,265
Kanagawa0100--
Nagano74623504250236
Shizuoka0200--
Niigata16525207--
Total18,18617,31713945014,21349,292

*1 farm pond, waterway, pump, etc.
*2 dike, spur, bank protection, coastal Levee, detached breakwater, sand beach, etc.
*3 rural community sewerage, etc.
*4 grain elevator, agricultural warehouse, pipe house, etc.
*5 livestock barn, compost depot, etc.



Damage of Forestry
(Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan)
Prefectures  Damaged points  Forest damage (ha) 
Forest dilapidationForest conservation facilities
*1
Forest Road Facilities
*2
Wood
processing
 and distribution Facilities
*3
Special
Forest Product Facilities
*4
Aomori1120300
Yamagata310000
Akita400090
Iwate378448331195707
Miyagi113975804254220
Fukushima143279973139138
Ibaraki50172025220
Tochigi6521001860
Gunma713040
Chiba5321060
Niigata2011220410
Yamanashi200000
Nagano711381200
Shizuoka106000
Kochi000100
Total4582752,6321154761,065

*1 coastal levee breach,  flank collapse, rockfall, landslide, etc.
*2 roadside slope failure, road shoulder collapse, landslide, etc.
*3 burned-out trees, fallen and broken trees due to tsunami
*4 forest products other than wood such as Japanese lacquer, mushroom

Damage of sediment disasters
(Sabo (Erosion and Sediment Control) Department,
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)
DisasterNumberDeadPrefectures
Mudflow, etc.1300
Landslides291614(Fukushima)
2(Tochigi)
Cliff failures973Fukushima
Avalanche 20
Total141      19


Total estimated damage caused by the Great EastJapanEarthquake as of 24 June 2011
(Cabinet Office)
categoryitemEstimated damage
(trillions of yen)
Constructions, etc. Residencial houses and land, Stores and offices, Factories, Machines, etc.10.4
Lifeline Facilities water, gas, Electric power, Telecommunication Facilities1.3
Infrastructure facilitiesRivers, Roads, Ports and harbors, sewerage, Airports, etc.2.2
Agriculture, Forestry and FisheriesFarmland, Agricultural facilities, Forest-related Facilities, Fishery-related facilities 1.9
OthersEducational Facilities, Health and Welfare facilities, waste disposal facilities, other public facilities, etc.1.1
total
16.9

16.9 trillion yen = $211,760(US millions, 2011) = €152,159(EUR millions, 2011) = £132,099(GBP millions, 2011) = 187,560(SFr millions, 2011) = C$209,341(CAD millions, 2011) = A$205,139(AUD Millions, 2011)
Just for your information, Japan's 2017 fiscal budget is 97.45 trillion yen ($870 billion).

Special Reconstruction Tax(2.1%) is imposed on individual income tax additionally from 2013 until 2037 for 25 years. Special Reconstruction Corporate Tax (10%) was imposed on corporations from 2012 to 2015.


There are several tours to tsunami-hit areas. Disaster tourism is not acceptable to all victims. The memory of the tsunami has been so painful that many victims just want to forget it. Meanwhile, many think the tragedy should not be remembered.

Natori City, Miyagi Prefecture:
http://www.kankou.natori.miyagi.jp/en/hisaichi/3715

Minamisanriku Hotel Kanyo’s "Storytelling bus tour",  Miyagi Prefecture:
https://trip101.com/article/the-memory-of-tohoku-earthquake-will-not-fade-minamisanriku-hotel-kanyo-s-storytelling-bus-tour
http://imakoso-tohoku.com/ouen-program/progno010/ (Japanese version only)
(Minamisanriku’s former Crisis Management Cente is under reinforcement)

Rikuzentakata City, Iwate Prefecture (Japanese version only):
http://imakoso-tohoku.com/ouen-program/progno007/
Otsuchi-cho, Iwate Prefecture (Japanese version only):
http://imakoso-tohoku.com/ouen-program/progno006/

Kamaishi City, Iwate Prefecture (Japanese version only):
http://imakoso-tohoku.com/ouen-program/progno003/

Ishinomaki and Onagawa, Miyagi Prefecture (Japanese version only):
http://imakoso-tohoku.com/ouen-program/progno009/

Tour to area within 20km radius from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power plant (Japanese version only):
Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture
https://nomado.info/20km/

Evacuation instruction zones in Fukushima Prefecture:
・Evacuation order cancellation preparation zone
・Restricted residence zone
・Difficult-to-return zone

Currently, these zones(726km2) occupy 5% of areas of Fukushima Prefecture (13,783km2).


In these areas, most of younger generation don't come back to their hometowns. They have begun to build new lives in another towns to which they have evacuated.

The Fukushima Prefectural Government is now checking all bags of rice for radiation. Fukushima rice passes Japan's radiation checks, but the rice price is lower than that of other prefectures.


Evacuation instruction zones in Fukushima Prefecture  as of 14 March 2017

MunicipalitiesEvacuation order
cancellation preparation zone
Restricted residence zoneDifficult-to-return zone
Minamisoma Citycancelled on 12 July 2016cancelled on 12 July 2016Part of city
(including part of Kanaya(Odaka Ward), etc.)
Iitate Villagecancelled on 31 March 2017cancelled on 31 March 2017Nagadoro district
Yamakiya district, Kawamata Towncancelled on 31 March 2017cancelled on 31 March 2017None
Katsurao Villagecancelled on 12 June 2016cancelled on 12 June 2016Noyuki district
Namie Towncancelled on 31 March 2017cancelled on 31 March 2017Ide, Omaru, Obori, Sakai, Suenomori, Murohara, Tsushima, Minamitsushima, Kawabusa, Hirusone, Shimotsushima, Akougi, Hatsuke
Futaba TownMorotake, Nakano, NakahamaNoneWhole area except Morotake, Nakano, Nakahama
Okuma TownNakayashiki districtOgawara districtWhole area except Nakayashiki, Ogawara districts
Tomioka Towncancelled on 1 April 2017cancelled on 1 April 2017Part of town (including Osuge, Oragahama, Yonomori, Sakura, etc.)



Data sources and references

Japanese version:
Cabinet Office, Government Of Japan, 2011. 東北地方太平洋沖地震を教訓とした地震・津波対策に関する専門調査会(第1回), 資料3-2 今回の津波被害の概要. [pdf] Cabinet Office, Government Of Japan. Available at:
http://www.bousai.go.jp/kaigirep/chousakai/tohokukyokun/1/pdf/3-2.pdf
[Accessed 8 March 2017].

Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, 2012.「東日本大震災水道施設被害状況調査報告書(平成23年度災害査定資料整理版)」について,2.4 津波による浸水状況 [pdf] Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.Available at:
http://www.mhlw.go.jp/topics/bukyoku/kenkou/suido/houkoku/suidou/dl/121214_024.pdf
[Accessed 8 March 2017].

Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, 2011. 国土地理院東日本大震災調査報告会, 津波による浸水状況-平成23年東北地方太平洋沖地震- [pdf] Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Available at:
http://www.gsi.go.jp/common/000061103.pdf
[Accessed 8 March 2017].

Cabinet Office, Government Of Japan. 2017. 緊急災害対策本部とりまとめ報「平成23年(2011年)東北地方太平洋沖地震(東日本大震災)について」(平成29年3月8日14:00現在) [pdf] Cabinet Office, Government Of Japan. Available at:
http://www.bousai.go.jp/2011daishinsai/pdf/torimatome20170308.pdf
[Accessed 12 March 2017].

Yutaka Honkawa, 2011.
社会実情データ図録(http://www2.ttcn.ne.jp/honkawa/)
「東日本大震災で確認された津波の高さ」
http://www2.ttcn.ne.jp/honkawa/4363b.html

English version:

Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the Government of Japan. 2012. "Response to the Great East Japan Earthquake By the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the Government of Japan" (10th ASEAN and Japan High Level Officials Meeting on Caring Societies)  [pdf] Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the Government of Japan. Available at:
http://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/kokusaigyomu/asean/2012/dl/Introduction_Dr.Yamauchi.pdf
 [Accessed 12 March 2017].



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